Audiology Research https://www.audiologyresearch.org/index.php/audio <p><strong>Audiology Research</strong>&nbsp;(<em>eISSN 2039-4349 -&nbsp;Editor-in-Chief:&nbsp;Giacinto Asprella Libonati,&nbsp;Italy</em>) is an international, peer-reviewed, open access Journal designed to be a place where the readers will quickly and clearly find up-to-date and high-quality information related to the Audiology and Neurotology field in a broad sense, including the study, early detection, diagnosis and treatment of all conditions of hearing and balance impairment and audiological and neurotological disorders. Papers ranging from the medical/clinical perspective to the basic and experimental research are encouraged for submission. Papers are welcomed in multiple areas including, but not limited to: Disorders of hearing and balance and neurotology, Balance and Hearing Diagnostic tests, treatments for audiological and balance disorders, Rehabilitative procedures, Genetics, Anatomy and Physiology, Psychoacoustics, Speech and Hearing sciences, Vestibular disorders, Neuroscience and Audiology, Epidemiology, Statistics, Engineering. Audiology Research aims to be the forum for discussion on Audiology and Neurotology for a diverse range of professionals, including researchers, clinicians, technicians, officers from health authorities, healthcare administrators.</p> PAGEPress Scientific Publications, Pavia, Italy en-US Audiology Research 2039-4330 <p><strong>PAGEPress</strong> has chosen to apply the&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License</strong></a>&nbsp;(CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.<br><br> An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:</p> <ol> <li>the author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.</li> <li>a complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.</li> </ol> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> </ol> Free-field evoked auditory brainstem responses in cochlear implant users https://www.audiologyresearch.org/index.php/audio/article/view/216 <p>The importance of binaural cues in auditory stream formation and sound source segregation is widely accepted. When treating one ear with a cochlear implant (CI) the peripheral auditory system gets partially replaced and processing delays get added potentially, thus important interaural time differences get altered. However, these effects are not fully understood, leaving a lack of systematic binaural fitting strategies with respect to an optimal binaural fusion. To get new insights into such alterations, we suggest a novel method of free-field auditory brainstem evoked responses (ABRs) analysis in CI users. This method does not bypass the technically induced intrinsic delays of the sound processor while leaving the whole electrode array active, thus the most natural way of stimulation is provided. We compared the ABRs collected of 12 CI users and 12 normal hearing listeners using two different stimuli (chirp, click) at four different intensities each. We analyzed the ABRs using the average of 2000 trials as well as a single trial analysis and found consistent results in the ABRs’ amplitudes and latencies, as well as in single trial relationships between both groups. This method provides a new perspective into the natural CI users’ ABRs and can be useful in future research regarding binaural interaction and fusion.</p> Erik Schebsdat Manuel C. Kohl Farah I. Corona-Strauss Harald Seidler Daniel J. Strauss ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-07 2018-12-07 8 2 10.4081/audiores.2018.216 Effects of directional hearing aid settings on different laboratory measures of spatial awareness perception https://www.audiologyresearch.org/index.php/audio/article/view/215 <p>Hearing loss can negatively influence the spatial hearing abilities of hearing-impaired listeners, not only in static but also in dynamic auditory environments. Therefore, ways of addressing these deficits with advanced hearing aid algorithms need to be investigated. In a previous study based on virtual acoustics and a computer simulation of different bilateral hearing aid fittings, we investigated auditory source movement detectability in older hearing- impaired (OHI) listeners. We found that two directional processing algorithms could substantially improve the detectability of left-right and near-far source movements in the presence of reverberation and multiple interfering sounds. In the current study, we carried out similar measurements with a loudspeaker-based setup and wearable hearing aids. We fitted a group of 15 OHI listeners with bilateral behind-the-ear devices that were programmed to have three different directional processing settings. Apart from source movement detectability, we assessed two other aspects of spatial awareness perception. Using a street scene with up to five environmental sound sources, the participants had to count the number of presented sources or to indicate the movement direction of a single target signal. The data analyses showed a clear influence of the number of concurrent sound sources and the starting position of the moving target signal on the participants’ performance, but no influence of the different hearing aid settings. Complementary artificial head recordings showed that the acoustic differences between the three hearing aid settings were rather small. Another explanation for the lack of effects of the tested hearing aid settings could be that the simulated street scenario was not sufficiently sensitive. Possible ways of improving the sensitivity of the laboratory measures while maintaining high ecological validity and complexity are discussed.</p> Micha Lundbeck Giso Grimm Volker Hohmann Lars Bramsløw Tobias Neher ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-11-21 2018-11-21 8 2 10.4081/audiores.2018.215 Normal hearing young adults with mild tinnitus: Reduced inhibition as measured through sensory gating https://www.audiologyresearch.org/index.php/audio/article/view/214 <p>Decreased central inhibition, possibly related to hearing loss, may contribute to chronic tinnitus. However, many individuals with normal hearing thresholds report tinnitus, suggesting that the percept in this population may arise from sources other than peripheral deafferentation. One measure of inhibition is sensory gating. Sensory gating involves the suppression of non-novel input, and is measured through cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) responses to paired stimuli. In typical gating function, amplitude suppression is observed in the second CAEP response when compared to the first CAEP response, illustrating inhibitory activity. Using this measure, we investigated central inhibitory processes in normal hearing young adults with and without mild tinnitus to determine whether inhibition may be a contributing factor to the tinnitus percept. Results showed that gating function was impaired in the tinnitus group, with the CAEP Pa component significantly correlated with tinnitus severity. Further exploratory analyses were conducted to evaluate variability in gating function within the tinnitus group, and findings showed that high CAEP amplitude suppressors demonstrated gating performance comparable to adults without tinnitus, while low amplitude suppressors exhibited atypical gating function.</p> Julia Campbell Connor Bean Alison LaBrec ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-02 2018-10-02 8 2 10.4081/audiores.2018.214 State-of-the-art assessment allows for improved vestibular evoked myogenic potential test-retest reliability https://www.audiologyresearch.org/index.php/audio/article/view/212 <p>The goal of the present study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability values of myogenic responses using the latest guidelines for vestibular assessment. Twenty-two otologically and neurologically normal adults were assessed twice, on two different days. The analyses were carried out using interclass correlations. The results showed that the latest recommendations for vestibular assessment lead to test-retest reliability values that are as high, or greater, than those reported in previous studies. The results suggest that state-of-the-art testing, using the latest recommendations as well as electromyography control, improves reliability values of myogenic responses, more specifically for the cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials. The impact of small differences in experimental procedures on the reliability values of myogenic responses is also addressed.</p> Lydia Behtani Maxime Maheu Audrey Delcenserie Mujda Nooristani François Champoux ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-20 2018-09-20 8 2 10.4081/audiores.2018.212 Asymmetric hearing loss and chronic dizziness in a patient with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus https://www.audiologyresearch.org/index.php/audio/article/view/200 <p>We report a case of a 54-year old female patient, complaining for chronic dizziness, hearing loss, tension headaches without aura, postural instability and gait dysfunction. The patient referred having these symptoms from 1992, but the last few months she experienced a noticeable aggravation of the symptoms. A magnetic resonance imaging test revealed a triventricular hydrocephalus, not associated with signs of intracranial hypertension decompensation. The ENT-Audiology evaluation revealed a bilateral sensorineural hearing loss with a conductive component, video-nystagmography resulted in an areflexia of the right ear and a reduced vestibular activity for the left ear. Auditory brainstem response test was also carried out and showed pathologic findings for the latencies of the waves I-III, III-V and I-V bilaterally but more significant in the right ear. On January 2016 the patient had endoscopic third ventriculostomy. On the follow up the patient referred an important subjective improvement regarding instability and gait dysfunction. In this paper we study the correlation between hydrocephalus, hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction.</p> Theodoros Varakliotis Federico Maspes Vittoria Di Rubbo Sara Cisternino Maria Lauriello Elisa Vitti Alberto Eibenstein ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-06-06 2018-06-06 8 2 10.4081/audiores.2018.200 Awareness of musicians on ear protection and tinnitus: A preliminary study https://www.audiologyresearch.org/index.php/audio/article/view/198 <p>Music induced hearing loss (MIHL) is linked to chronic, extended exposure, and progress at a rate proportionate to exposure conditions. The aim was to document hearing deterioration; awareness of ear protection devices (EPDs); presence of tinnitus, measurement of temporary threshold shift. Thirty-four musicians filled a questionnaire regarding: years of experience, instrument/splayed, hours of music exposure per week with/without amplification, through earphones and speakers, use of EPDs and tinnitus. Hearing screening in five subjects was done before and after one hour and ten minutes of practice session. Among the participants, 8.8% reported hearing deterioration subjectively and 38.2% reported unilateral intermittent tinnitus, 79.4% lacked awareness about EPDs and 21.6 % were aware but never used them. Mean for temporary threshold shift at 500 Hz and 1 KHz was 5dB HL and 10dBHL at 2 KHz. Musicians are at risk for hearing problems, but the awareness on auditory damage is limited, hence conservative measures must be taken for their well being.</p> Tychicus Dinakaran Ruth Deborah D. Chitra RejoyThadathil ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-05-23 2018-05-23 8 2 10.4081/audiores.2018.198 Vestibular paroxysmia in vestibular neuritis: A case report https://www.audiologyresearch.org/index.php/audio/article/view/206 <p>The term vestibular paroxysmia (VP) was introduced for the first time by Brandt and Dieterich in 1994. In 2016, the Barany Society formulated the International Classification of VP, focusing in particular on the number and duration of attacks, on the differential diagnosis and on the therapy. Ephaptic discharges in the proximal part of the eighth cranial nerve, which is covered by oligodendrocytes, are assumed to be the neural basis of VP. We report the first case in literature of an onset of symptoms and signs typical of VP in a young man following acute unilateral vestibular loss not combined with auditory symptoms. Indeed, the pathogenic mechanism affected only the vestibular nerve as confirmed by the presence of a stereotyped nystagmus pattern. The magnetic resonance imaging didn’t reveal any specific cause therefore we suggest the possible role of a neuritis triggering an ephaptic discharge as the neural mechanism of VP.</p> Michele Ori Valeria Gambacorta Giampietro Ricci Mario Faralli ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-05-11 2018-05-11 8 2 10.4081/audiores.2018.206 Electroacoustic assessment of wireless remote microphone systems https://www.audiologyresearch.org/index.php/audio/article/view/204 <p>Wireless remote microphones (RMs) transmit the desired acoustic signal to the hearing aid (HA) and facilitate enhanced listening in challenging environments. Fitting and verification of RMs, and benchmarking the relative performance of different RM devices in varied acoustic environments are of significant interest to Audiologists and RM developers. This paper investigates the application of instrumental speech intelligibility and quality metrics for characterizing the RM performance in two acoustic environments with varying amounts of background noise and reverberation. In both environments, two head and torso simulators (HATS) were placed 2 m apart, where one HATS served as the <em>talker</em> and the other served as the <em>listener</em>. Four RM systems were interfaced separately with a HA programmed to match the prescriptive targets for the N4 standard audiogram and placed on the listener HATS. The HA output in varied acoustic conditions was recorded and analyzed offline through computational models predicting speech intelligibility and quality. Results showed performance differences among the four RMs in the presence of noise and/or reverberation, with one RM exhibiting significantly better performance. Clinical implications and applications of these results are discussed.</p> Haniyeh Salehi Vijay Parsa Paula Folkeard ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-04-17 2018-04-17 8 2 10.4081/audiores.2018.204 Quality of life and speech perception in two late deafened adults with cochlear implants https://www.audiologyresearch.org/index.php/audio/article/view/194 The aim was to demonstrate the need for a quality of life assessment in biopsychosocial aural rehabilitation (AR) practices with late deafened adults (LDAs) with cochlear implants (CIs). We present a case report of a medical records review of two LDAs enrolled in a biopsychosocial group AR program. A speech perception test <em>Contrasts for Auditory and Speech Training</em> (CAST) and a quality of life (QoL) assessment the <em>Nijmegen Cochlear Implant Questionnaire</em> (NCIQ) were given prior to AR therapy. CAST scores indicated both patients had excellent basic speech perception. However, NCIQ results revealed patients’ difficulties in basic and advanced listening settings. NCIQ highlighted patients’ self-perceived poor self-esteem and ongoing challenges to their QoL. Speech perception testing results alone are not enough to document the daily challenges of QoL needs of LDAs with CIs. The inclusion of a QoL measure such as the NCIQ is vital in evaluating outcomes of cochlear implantation in LDAs. Marwa F. Abdrabbou Denise A. Tucker Mary V. Compton Lyn Mankoff ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-03-06 2018-03-06 8 2 10.4081/audiores.2018.194 Tympanometric profiles for Chinese older adults https://www.audiologyresearch.org/index.php/audio/article/view/190 The current study aimed at obtaining and examining the normative tympanometric findings in the Chinese older adults (60 to 90 years). The tympanometric data was collected using the Interacoustics Titan IMP 440 clinical immittance meter. This included peak static acoustic admittance (Ytm); tympanometric peak pressure (TPP); tympanometric width (TW); and ear canal volume (ECV). 146 (228 ears) Chinese older adults with normal hearing or sensorineural hearing loss were included in the study. The mean and standard deviation of the tympanometric values include: Ytm 0.48±0.28mmho; TPP -5±11daPa; TW 74±27daPa; and ECV 1.06±0.29 cc. Factors such as ear, gender and age had a minimal effect on all the four-tympanometric parameters studied. Nevertheless, there were a few differences between the present study results and the previously published data. The study results warrant the need for population and age specific normative values for clinical use. Vinaya Manchaiah Naresh Durisala Vijay Marimuthu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2017-11-07 2017-11-07 8 2 10.4081/audiores.2017.190